Fermentation of raw materials is an ancients way of preserving food. It is a desirable process resulting from the modification of food material by the activity of microorganisms and their enzymes. These transformations through fermentation occur spontaneously due to the development of microorganism populations naturally present (microbiota) in the food environment under particular environmental conditions (microbiome). Since Andean traditional strategies for food production are still the main source for feeding rural populations, the advancement analytical technologies allowed the identification of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) responsible for the fermentation of many traditional products. Based on the great LAB species diversity revealed, it is possibly to apply strains with valuable biotechnological and safety features to improve nutritional value of foods, maintaining and promoting the protection of agroecological systems and agrobiodiversity, thus Andean culture.